Future of Libraries 2010
Cracking the Code: Beyond Dewey
Rachel Fewell and Lynda Freas, Anythink Libraries

The Colorado Libraries decided that they wanted their new libraries to be a third place, and to banish Dewey. London had the “idea store” — an experience model that was not common in libraries. Maricopa County and Frankfurt Library (IL) did a word based system. Darien Library created subject-oriented “glades” of materials and Hennepin has broken their collection into “neighborhoods” with groups by topic but still with Dewey labels.

In 2009 they did a roll-out of their “Anythink Libraries” brand to replace their former name, the Rangeview Library District. The buildings were remodeled to include reading areas with fireplaces, comfortable furniture, children’s areas with kid-friendly and colorful furniture. They put their family and parenting books in the children’s area. The shelving was all perfectly linear, but they moved to a bookstore shelving model with modular shelves at right angles, with curves, and all oriented by topic/word (they’re calling them neighborhoods). The libraries’ collections are being classified and shelved with words and not numbers.

4 people spent 1000 hours doing their catalog conversion for the whole system from Dewey to word-oriented classification, which they call WordThink. It took about a week per branch to do the conversion, and the new branches all are launched in BISAC. They replaced all of their labels with items that were brighter and more readable too. Topics like farming, languages, etc. These signs are yellow typeface on a green background. Second level signage is provided on the shelves themselves vertically, blue typeface on a white background. Nonfiction is filed alphabetically by title, except for areas that it doesn’t make sense (e.g. literary criticism). Fiction is filed by author within each genre.

They had to figure out with their vendors and technical services librarians how to translate BISAC classifications into WordThink classification. BISAC grids are available for free online to everyone. They also planned for yearly updates and retrofitting. 4 staff members changed item records for all the dewey ranges, going through item by item. Every single non-fiction collection was converted (including LPs, Books on CD, J & E, Teen).

Future of Libraries 2010
Social Media Capital
Patrick Sweeney

This was a very helpful and practical presentation from Patrick Sweeney (http://www.pcsweeney.com) started by showing a popular viral video about social media, quoting statistics about various social media sites and their impact on society. (e.g. 80% of companies use social media for recruitment. Ashton Kutcher has more Twitter followers than the entire population of Ireland. YouTube is the 2nd largest search engine. 34% of bloggers write about brands and products).

Social capital is “the collective value of all ‘social networks’ and the inclinations that arise from these networks to do things for each other” (Putnam). An example is at San Mateo County Library they are organizing programs and finding performers through Facebook connections and discussions. Facebook and Twitter are also a place to follow local government officials and partner agencies and engage with them by answering questions they have, re-tweeting their good content, etc.

Make sure your online profile is up to date and accurate in directories, news sites, and online maps. Search for your library in Yahoo & Google and see what comes up. Is it accurate? Make sure that any news stories about the library contain updated information if anything has changed (change in policy, hours, etc.). People will go back and see this through web search, and you want to make sure it’s accurate.

Go over Yelp, Foursquare, Twitter, Facebook, and blogs to see what’s being said on other sites and profiles and –engage– by commenting, liking, and following. Look at what your staff are talking about as well — likely the library is often mentioned in their posts. One more way to reach out to your customers.

Find out which sites your community is using. It might not be Facebook or Twitter. His library’s Hispanic community is mostly using MySpace, so that’s someplace they need to be. He also warns not to try to use everything and be everywhere. Pick the top 5. His top 5 are Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, and WordPress.

Some decisions to make. Are you going to post as an institution, or as an individual? What brand are you going to use with these profiles? Will it be employee-run or organizationally-run? Employee-run posting can provide some legal implications and issues (moderating comments, freedom of information, etc.). What are you going to say? Just pushing out information one-way as a marketing tool is not the most effective way to reach out. Think about who your audience is before posting.

Policies! Argh. You need policies about what staff can do and cannot do, both on their own time and during work hours. You need a patron posting policy to govern comments or moderation. You might need policies about each individual site too.

Think about your brand. Register your name at a site like Knowem.com. Have a standard logo or photo, description/biography, and tags (if available). He recommends registering as many of your names and acronyms as possible, just as you do with domain names (to prevent squatters from providing ads or misleading sites).

How to find friends. Talk to people virtually and face-to-face about the fact that you’re on these sites. Use hashtags to follow organizations, products, names, and topics. Create a hashtag for your library too! Have contests or promotions for friending or following. Retweet something that someone else has posted that is applicable for libraries, and they’ll see your retweet and perhaps then follow you. Answer informational questions that you find on Facebook or Twitter. Take the initiative and help others where they’re asking the questions. Ask questions too. Seeking input from your community is an excellent way to encourage engagement.

Catch a meme wave and put the library’s name and resources out there where our customers are paying attention. He showed us the viral Old Spice library video and the Harold B. Lee Library’s parody of the Old Spice videos advertising the library. He pointed out the “People for a library-themed Ben & Jerry’s flavor” page.

What not to do! Don’t ever post anything negative – it won’t bring about anything good. Don’t lie. Don’t post about religion, sex, or politics. Don’t troll (saying something negative just to get a rise out of people).

Find out when you’re getting mentioned in the news. Set up Google Alerts, use TwinBox (for Twitter), and then run searches for yourself in sites, look at rating sites like Yelp, and listen to what people say. Respond to them as you would a customer right in front of you.

If users are posting about negative experiences you need to respond. He recommends looking at Kodak’s social media plan (inc. how to deal with negative behaviors online).

Now that you have social capital, how are you going to spend that? Find out what your community wants — do they need more business books, programs, services, open hours? These are conversations you can have with your customers in real time, from anywhere. Connect with your city/county/school organizations and collaborate with them on projects via these tools. If you emote a happy and fun persona online, this can translate into voting support, funding, etc. Advertise the services you have, letting people know what you have and what you do for them. Promote online materials over print, as this is an online medium. Mention local resources, including local artists and bands too — you might find a performer!

As a librarian, don’t forget about your own social network as a tool for professional development and connections. This helps you connect with people with like interests, get feedback and help, make connections that make you visible if you want to publish or run for office in ALA or another professional organization.

  1. In Praise of the Free Webinar (resources for finding ’em in libraryland): http://bit.ly/anGBC3
  2. What a good library program idea from @nypl: Program for parents of school-age kids: “What To Do When It’s Due Next Day” http://ow.ly/2EGC4
  3. From @wired: Take a tour of the New Twitter, screen by screen: http://bit.ly/96OxtS
  4. From @gluejar: Can Libraries Work Together to Acquire eBook Assets? http://bit.ly/9iZzoJ
  5. From @librarianbyday: Crap Detection, A 21st Century Literacy « Libraries and Transliteracy http://bit.ly/cqyFUa
  6. Put Google Chrome on library PCs! From @mattcutts – a shortcut: Control-Shift-V pastes as plain text (no formatting) – http://goo.gl/8my5
  7. Great use of a Google Custom Search Engine – Open Access Journals search engine (3600+ titles) – http://bit.ly/akKRbr (via @charbooth @oatp)
  8. From @JustinLibrarian: Pretty awesome look at a library loaning out Nooks and a GREAT FAQ http://bit.ly/dwPJns
  9. Ammunition to get a library mobile app project approved! 1 of 4 US adults already uses apps [story from @mashable] – http://mash.to/2Els
  10. The Complete Android Guide is available in digital & hard copies, & it’s available for free browsing: http://ow.ly/2EOuL
  11. Internet Explorer 9 Screenshot Tour: The Best New Features in IE9 http://lifehacker.com/5638885/
  12. From@TechStuffHSW: Is Internet Explorer 9 a glimpse at the future of the Web? http://is.gd/fc7Tj
  13. If you work in a library & don’t know what First Sale Doctrine & EULAs are, read this. http://bit.ly/aGIG42 This kind of stuff affects library digital content and what our future will hold.
  14. Photo of what the new Twitter will look like (photo of screen @ the press event): http://mashable.com/2010/09/14/new-twitter-web-interface
  15. Our Favorite Office Objects: Kitchen Goods as Office Storage http://lifehacker.com/5637204/
  16. Chart has data on ages of social network users http://bit.ly/ahK5Uv (from ALA_TechSource, via @sabram)
  17. Presentation from @DavidLeeKing Collaborative Technology in Libraries http://bit.ly/bMBC3X (from ALA_TechSource)
  1. William Gibson: the Dangerous Minds interview http://bit.ly/aNeKMj (from @BoingBoing)
  2. Visualize Your Gmail Activity With Graph Your Inbox – http://mash.to/2DJuI (from @mashable)
  3. Jakob Nielsen: Designing Websites for Children http://bit.ly/KidsUsability Definitely applicable to library kids sites. (via @NNgroup)
  4. Only 2 more days to register for the @ALA_TechSource workshop ‘Using Tech in Library Training’ w/Paul Signorelli on 9/16 http://bit.ly/aDJPx9
  5. Good, quick post by @nengard on Social media desktop apps and how they can work for you. http://bit.ly/a8wAYv (via @ALA_TechSource)
  6. Great new post on getting stuff done from @davidleeking – New blog post: Resistance vs Management http://bit.ly/93rMM5
  7. From @ALA_TechSource: Social media policy for a one branch public library.  http://bit.ly/bN8kYf
    Heck, libraries of any kind can benefit from this simple approach — quick and painless.
  1. Watch Cory Doctorow’s lecture on Copyright vs. Creativity & think about impact on info access.  It’s seriously inspiring, as are most of Doctorow’s talks.  http://bit.ly/bGZwka (via @slowtv @doctorow)
  2. Using Netflix at an Academic Library – a TTW Guest Post by Rebecca Fitzgerald @ALA_ACRL (via @mstephens7)
  3. I’m speaking at the Library Journal eConference: “eBooks: Libraries at the Tipping Point – A Virtual Summit.”  Register now!  http://bit.ly/9sINua
  4. 5 tips for using Priority Inbox in Gmail http://bit.ly/au5vrs (from GoogleAtWork)
  5. A Finnish library patron built a mobile app that scans item barcodes, searches the library’s catalog, shows you available digital & physical copies, and then & gives you directions to the nearest library with it on the shelves.  This is so sweet!  http://bit.ly/b5fI7h (via @href=”http://twitter.com/natenatenate”>natenatenate)
  6. Google Voice App Adds Home Screen Widgets for Easy Access to Messages – http://mash.to/2BUQz (via @mashable)
  7. 10 Tips for Designing Presentations That Don’t Suck: Pt.2 | @DesignShack http://bit.ly/cnYqKt (via @ghardin)
  8. Build Project Management Gantt Charts With Gantto http://ff.im/qrxC8 (via @webgoddess)
  1. Google Instant Search Preview Goes Live (pretty sweet if I do say so myself) – http://mash.to/2BemR
  2. OMG, public libraries! Municode has online versions of U.S. state, city, & county codes! How many times would this have saved my tush on the reference desk?  http://bit.ly/aJMFdI (via Sites and Soundbytes)
  3. 24 Impressive WordPress Blog Plug-ins You Should Consider (from @smexaminer)
  4. Paper.li creates a newspaper page with Twitter content (user, hashtag, group) in an easy-to-read format: http://paper.li/
  5. I get a ton of questions about archiving Tweets. Here’s a great article from @rww: 10 Ways to Archive Your Tweets http://rww.tw/K50NX
  6. Fur.ly is a good service for librarians sharing resource lists. Shorten multiple URLs into one fur.ly URL & send to a group: http://fur.ly/
  7. Ebook Reader Overviews (from Lauren Pressley): http://t.co/B3nBO7H
  8. So seriously, if you haven’t tried out the interactive Arcade Fire video yet, take the pluge & do it. http://www.thewildernessdowntown.com/
  9. How to Be a Hybrid Designer/Developer http://t.co/VVsfv2k via @mashdevdesign @mashable
  10. Dutch Library DOK’s New Cutting-edge Community Tech Projects http://t.co/z6Y0k1t (via @mstephens7) It’s always better in the Netherlands.
  11. There is a generously free chapter of new Library Technology Report by J. Grogg / R. Fleming-May available for viewing about how to analyze electronic resources http://bit.ly/dDqXtP
  12. I Love My Librarian Award nominations end 9/20! 10 librarians win $5000 & a trip to NY. http://www.ilovelibraries.org/ilovemylibrarian
  13. Via @mashable “What Your Business Should Know About Facebook Places” – http://bit.ly/a5BJCm by @benparr (Libraries too!)
  1. HowStuffWorks.com has built a new TechStuff podcast page, complete with quizzes and puzzles! http://is.gd/eNCLW (via @TechStuffHSW)
  2. Diagram Designer is a simple program for creating diagrams easily (Windows only). Just used it & love it! – http://meesoft.logicnet.dk/
  3. Check out this FREE Chapter of new Library Technology Report by J. Grogg / R. Fleming-May.  Learn the latest on how to analyze electronic resources, something every library needs to be doing. http://bit.ly/dDqXtP (via @ALA_TechSource)
  4. Secure those passwords library army! From @Lifehacker: Update Your Insecure Passwords & Make Them Easy to Use http://lifehacker.com/5631203/
  5. This would be an interesting move, and not surprising given the drop-off of vendor attendance at conferences. From @LibraryJournal: End of the ALA Conference as we know it? http://bit.ly/cxDhgJ Merger with BookExpo America may be coming.
  6. The ACLU Challenges Laptop Searches & Seizures at the Border http://bit.ly/92Jfht (via @EFF and @ACLU)

I worry about libraries and the future of music.  Our users simply don’t use music in the formats or the ways that we provide it.   We’re blind to what they want then complain when they try to make what we do have fit their paradigm. You’ve seen people come in, grab a pile of CDs, burn them right there in the library sometimes, then return them and check out more.  Libraries are a source of piracy for sure, but the way we provide music to our users in general has proven to be less than useful as the years go on.  Your CD circulation has dropped, right?  And you’ve probably cut funding to the CD collection too, right?  OK, now think about why you did that and what we need to do next.

Music sales have dropped about 50% in the last decade and while CD sales have tanked, album downloads have grown slowly but single song downloads have exploded to 13 times the number of album downloads (Tom Silverman, Tommy Boy Records).  The advent of iTunes, YouTube, and other music consumption services fundamentally changed the way people consume music.  It’s no longer about the album as a self-enclosed object with liner notes. It’s about the song itself, the music video, on demand when and where you want it.

And let’s face it.  Libraries have crap in the way of digital music.  We can’t just buy a song from iTunes and put it up on our website as a converted MP3 (though we should legally be able to, imho).  We have to buy collections from third party vendors.  There are three major collections in existence: Overdrive (classical, folk, tiny bit of rock), Alexander Street Music (folk, classical, world), and the new Freegal music service (popular music but only from Sony).

Overdrive & Alexander Street Music are very similar.  Overdrive users download a music file in a DRM-protected format that will self-encrypt and be unreadable after the designated circulation period (e.g. 3 weeks).  Update: Alexander Street Music offers -streaming- access to classical, jazz, and folk. And sadly, the selection is not what most of our users want.  Most people aren’t looking for classical and folk music.  Libraries with these services get very poor use of them (according to my anecdotal discussions with other eResources managers), and frankly, I personally don’t think they’re worth the money we pay for them.  Check your usage stats and do a cost per use calculation.  You’re likely to find you might be paying $5/song.  Ri-freaking-diculous.

Freegal is very different.  The songs are popular ones with a lot of well-known artists in different genres like rock, R&B, and country.  And in a lovely change of pace, the songs are provided as DRM-free MP3s!  But — and I stress the but — the library can only offer these in a very limited fashion because of cost.  The library pays for the number of downloads per year they want to fund.  Then divide that by 52, and there’s your weekly cap.  If you hit the cap, then no users can download anything else for the rest of the week.  As a result, Freegal suggests that you limit the number of songs any one user can download in one week.  For our library in San Jose, that number is 3.  Yep, you get only 3 songs per week, and that’s if you’re lucky enough to log on before we hit our weekly cap.  Update/Clarification: SJPL no longer has a weekly cap. So if you want to download an actual album, you have to calendar yourself to come back for at least 4 weeks to get one single album.  How many users are going to do that?  For us to pay for enough songs for our users to access a full album per week, we’d need to spend approximately $500,000 per year.  And that’s not happening, nor should it in my opinion.  That’s a ridiculous proposition for a collection budget.  Is this token offering of popular online music to our users enough to interest them and an attempt at a successful model, or does it merely show that libraries are clueless once again about what our users really want with digital formats?  Again, please check out the cost per use of the service and I can just about guarantee you it’s costing you more to offer songs via Freegal to your users than it would to simply buy them the songs they want directly from iTunes, Amazon, or whatever other service they use. But what other choices do we have?  To do nothing. And that stinks too.

It’s nice that the vendors are trying to provide music digitally to libraries.  They could have just said no, and done nothing.  An attempt is much appreciated.  I’m sure dealing with record companies is a nightmare, and I don’t envy them that job. My first concern is what the residents of San Jose want and will use, and I’m just not sure that this is it.

Stephen Abram asked some excellent questions in his post about libraries and music: Libraries, Music, and the Internet.

1. Are we album or song oriented?
2. Do we create or use search tools for albums, artists and songs?
3. Do we catalogue by genre?
4. Are we oriented to physical formats alone?
5. Can we ‘lend’ a streaming format?
6. Do we use the promotion tools on YouTube like music videos?

I would add two questions to that list:

  1. Is it better to offer -something- in the way of digital music, even if it’s poor, or should we hope for better library-friendly digital collections or, better yet, a legal ruling that exempts libraries from DRM restrictions on digital content?
  2. Would any library be willing to take the legally risky (but perfectly rational) chance to burn its physical collection into MP3s and then start providing the files online for free to users with a library card log-in?

If your library has not had a serious discussion about music content and its place in the library’s physical and digital collections, I highly suggest you do so.  The future has already moved on without us and we are struggling as a result.  Be intentional in your decision-making, because what you invest in today will affect your users’ opinions of you tomorrow.

I do also think that this is a general problem related to digital content.  Downloadable movies have the same problem as other commenters have pointed out.  For movies & music, people want to get what they want when and where they want it.  That means digital.  Multi-device-compatible formats.  Platform-neutral access.  And to do it successfully, this probably means a streaming model, a cost per access model, and an “everything under the sun” model for libraries.

I have a few ideas of how we could potentially solve this problem, but it would take a government mandate that would likely piss off publishers, record companies, and movie moguls.  Too bad for them.  I’m ironing out the details of that idea now with some really smart people.

I feel firmly that we in libraries are doing the music thing wrong.  We’re not providing the formats, collections, or songs to our users in the ways that they want to consume them.  I believe streaming is the future — and as Abram asks, where do libraries fit in that model?  Do we pay for a community-wide Rdio license?  I think that’s the answer, or at least the best one I can come up with so far.  If you have your own ideas, suggestions, or additional rants, please post them in the Comments section.  Let the arguing begin!

Review of Rdio

September 6, 2010 | Comments (2)

Music is the single best representation of anyone’s true inner self.  You might think you know someone, but browse through their music collection and you might just change your mind.  The way that we listen to music has changed drastically.  We’re moving away from physical formats to digital formats.  I buy all my music digital-only now, though my 2000+ CDs & records are still in the house.  Aside from rare or sentimental albums, I think my physical music objects will soon be going to Amoeba Records to earn a few bucks.  I have everything in digital format (backed up, of course) and listen online more than anywhere else anyway.

We’re also moving away from the ownership model of music to the subscription model.  Services like Pandora, Last.fm, Rdio, and others serve as a way for people to access nearly any digital music album or song they want, any time.  And no need to pay per song — it’s a monthly subscription cost.  You can listen to anything you want, as often as you want, for as long as you want.  I truly believe this is the future of music — no more “I own this piece of plastic which has 12 songs on it.”  Instead, it will be “I subscribe to X Service and get unlimited access to all music.”

A subscription model is easier and better for the end user, and still profitable for the music producers.  I dare say not profitable for the artists, though I hope with a more open subscription service you will see more independent artists earning money directly from fans instead of through useless record company middle men.  The subscription model could also alleviate a lot of the music piracy that has sent record companies into a DRM tizzy and seriously damaged easy access to music files.  If I pay $5 or $10 a month and can get anything I want, why bother downloading illegally or legally?

The problem is, of course, bandwidth.  If all the music is online, you’re live streaming every time you want something.  The U.S. is woefully behind other countries in developing a high speed network.  My hope is that Google’s wired bandwidth project, as well as the development of 3G+ networks, we will see an improvement in service over the next decade.  In the meantime, these services can still work — if the services do something smart.

And Rdio has done just that.  Rdio is the online music streaming service I use.  I love it, though it has some teensy kinks that are still being worked out as it achieved mass adoption rates at their release well beyond what they were set up to handle.  It’s stabilized a lot, and is truly awesome.

There’s a website of course, and a desktop version to use, as well as apps for mobile use.  You subscribe for either $4.99 or $9.99 a month to get unlimited streaming music, as well as the option to sync songs to your mobile device and even download the MP3s (for 99 cents, much like iTunes).  The ability so sync your favorite songs to your device means you don’t have to download them next time — nice!  Saves bandwidth in the future, and makes the service more efficient and sustainable.

The neatest feature for me is that Rdio matches up your iTunes or other collection so you can easily build your “collection” in Rdio to match what you already have–making browsing what you like really easy.  I found that they have access to about 2/3 of the music I have in my iTunes collection, but I do listen to some fairly obscure stuff.  They do not have access to all music by all artists.  Some artists will have nothing available for them (like Dead Can Dance), but others will have everything in their catalog (like Air), while others have some weird smattering of songs or albums (e.g. Underworld).  They currently are partnered with Warner, Sony, Universal, EMI, ioda, The Orchard, INgrooves, and Iris.  More partners are added as time goes on, and I’m pretty confident that missing music companies will be added soon as Rdio’s popularity soars.

Of course there is a social component where you can friend folks and see what they’re listening to.  I discovered a good band today using that feature.  That being said, Rdio could benefit from some music recommendation offerings, much like Pandora or Last.fm offer.  When I don’t know what I want to listen to, Pandora is still my first choice.  But when I want a particular song or artist, then it’s off to Rdio.  I’m loving it in my car, listening to my favorite songs on my commute without worrying if I synced the right album onto my phone or bringing the right CD with me.  If your music tastes are wide-ranging and fickle and you’re on the go with multiple devices, then Rdio might be a good choice for you too.