Internet Librarian 2010: Brand Awareness: Lessons for Libraries

Michelle Wilde, Cathy Cranston, and Louise Feldman from the Colorado State University Libraries
The CSU Libraries decided to specifically use Facebook use for students in universities at the undergraduate level with specific research needs.  Turnbull and Bright published a study in 2008 about using Google AdWords as a way to draw more students in.  Based on that study, the CSU Libraries got funding for both Google AdWords and Facebook ads.  Both Google and Facebook provided statistics on the click-throughs and they set up bit.ly URLs that they could monitor to see how many people were drawn from the ad into their EBSCO article database Academic Search Premier.  Over several months they could see users coming to EBSCO from both Google and Facebook as a result of the campaign.  They used the terms “scholarly” and “peer-reviewed” as those were requirements the students often came to the libraries with.  They used a series of different images, “from cute puppies to rocker dudes” and then changed their image as finals week approached to large yellow warning signs saying things like “Paper Due?”  They ran four campaigns in total, testing out their efficacy.  They tried two methods of paying for it too — cost per click or the impression model.  The impression model worked best for them as it was a predictable cost.  They found that Facebook advertising was not effective because that is not where students are spending their time when they’re in research mode.  They discovered that with Google, they could use terms and phrases in their AdWords that were more lengthy and research-oriented than in Facebook.  They mentioned Google’s keyword locator (great for synonym-finding).  Since they couldn’t use IP addresses as a restricting factor in who sees the ads, they ran them in a 15 mile radius around Fort Collins–to see what the smallest radius they could use would be.  They found that didn’t work and they weren’t picking up the university users at all.  So, instead, they advertised to a 4km radius around campus.  And this worked — but they still weren’t showing up on campus computers when they’d use Google looking for the ads.  So, they opened it up to a 10km radius around campus, and this worked — ads started appearing on campus.  Google ads would show up in sidebars as well as in preferred results, header ads on blogs, etc.  People coming in through Google AdWords actually did follow through to the article databases.  By changing the ad locations they were able to drop their cost per use dramatically.  They were disappointed with Google’s customer support.  Focus on Google AdWords and have a flexible budget to try out over  several months.  Just for this conference, they set up an ad.  Do a Google search for Awesome CSU Librarians, and you should see a CSU ad which takes you to a page where their presentation is posted.

Beatrice Pulliam, Providence College; Laura Kohl, Bryant University; Talia Resendes, Johnson & Wales University
Beatrice started out by talking about using branding to keep users coming back.  What is it about your brand, your library that keeps them coming back?  Whether you’re purposely branding or not, you are indeed still branding through all of your customer experiences.  You want your brand to be everywhere — signage, id tags, online presence, printed materials, etc.
Talia talked about messaging in an online environment.  The subliminal message that we want to get across is that the user has come to the right place. Using a logo is one small part, but in reality your online brand is also all about your resources — what you’re giving the users. If you haven’t thought about mobile service delivery, you really need to do that.  Your Facebook page should cross-link to your library’s website and your library’s website should cross-link to your Facebook page.  Are you using your computer’s screen-savers to advertise too?
Laura concluded the talk by discussing interactive experiences and branding those.  You can use multimedia experiences and interactions with your users and you can have technology assist and intermediate interactions between staff and customers.  Several tools she recommended: Blabberize, Animoto, Jing, Prezi, Glogster, Xtranormal.  At Bryant they created an Xtranormal video (text-to-speech animated movies, super easy to make).  They also used Blabberize to create a short animated ad, in this case synching up a staff member’s voice to an animated talking dog’s head.  They also used PowerPoint and Captivate for screencasts.  Glogster is an online digital poster-creation tool.  The “poster” is kind of like a mini-web-page with whatever embedded media or links you want.  Libraries and librarians communicate with users through texting, IM (inc. the good old Meebo chat widget), and they use Jing short on-demand screencasts that they can send to students to help them get what they need immediately.  They’re measuring success through anecdotal customer feedback during interactions.

Internet Librarian 2010: Mobile Usability

Jeff Wisniewski

Usability is the study of the relative ease with which a user can complete a given task.  We want users to be able to do something — the sites are there for use, so how do we do it right?  There are major guidelines for app development for all of the major platforms.  Even if you’re developing a mobile site, not an app, the guidelines can still be helpful to show you the experience your users expect.  Also check out the W3C’s Mobile OK Checker to ensure your mobile site meets coding standards.  Not only are you designing for occasional inexperienced users, but highly distract-able occasional inexperienced users.  Instead of thinking of broad detailed tasks, focus on smaller micro-interactions (like finding the hours).  Desktop sites are wide, tend to be deep, and very complex.  They are stable and get infrequent use.  And you can predict how folks will be interacting with your site — a mouse, keyboard, trackpad, etc.  Mobile sites need to be simple, slim, and get even more infrequent use.  But the device proliferation and fragmentation within OSs has created a difficult situation for predicting how our users will be interacting with our sites.  What should we test on mobile sites?  Functional testing — much more critical in mobile than in desktop.  Task-based testing.  User satisfaction surveys are important too.  Mobile resource usability is affected by so many layers — the hardware of the device (processor, screen size), the device OS, the flavor of user interface (as with the HTC Sense UI for Android), the device browser, etc.  There are of course the popular touch-screen mobile phones, non-touch screen mobile phones, quick messaging phones, and the tablets/pads proliferating like gangbusters.  Jeff suggests first to conduct a heuristic evaluation of your content.  Then he recommends doing some rapid paper prototyping to sketch up UIs.  There are a number of simulators and emulators to use on your desktop computer to view what the mobile site will look like. Jeff showed some examples of basic and seriously advanced paper prototyping.  You can do some HTML prototyping too, a wireframe of a mobile site testable on desktops and mobile devices.  Jeff provided a long list of emulators and simulators, but recommended that we test our mobile content on someone’s real device that they use every day.  Just pull in those favors from your colleagues. There is a tool called MobiReady that checks your mobile site’s code (similar to W3C MobileOK Checker).  Jeff recommends Browsercam, which does offer mobile browser previews.  Another tool, DeviceAnywhere, collects data for mobile testing.  It’s helpful to also gather more subjective user feedback as well — Did they like the site?  Would they use it again?  Ensure the questions are short and not text-boxes (after all, remember they’re on mobile!) :)

Internet Librarian 2010: Foursquare, Location-Based Social Networks & Library Apps

Joe Murphy

<I missed Jason A Clark’s part of the presentation unfortunately – sorry!>

Foursquare is baed on social rewards for sharing information – badges, interactions, comments, mayorships, etc.  We’ve already had our first check-in in space on Foursquare.  Joe pointed out how the Internet Librarian Conference listing in Foursquare is for an event, not just for a place/venue.  Joe recommends that libraries claim venues for their libraries, which gives you the opportunity to monitor statistics and create promotions.  The most important thing we can do is to just be aware of Foursquare — users will engage with this service whether we’re doing anything or not.  Joe touched on Facebook Places as well — Foursquare, as popular as it is, only has 3 million users.  Twitter has 145 million and Facebook has 500 million.  Facebook Places simply adds a social place-based interaction to your existing Facebook social network connections.  Facebook Places privacy options are critical – something that we should be teaching our customers about.  So many of us are haters of the “check your friends in” feature, which I now thing Facebook must realize is a mistake.  Joe says the future of location-based information is a combination of proximity relevance and social interactions. (Sarah’s note: This is reminiscent of basic augmented reality.)

Internet Librarian 2010: Designing a Mobile Experience

Dave McLaughlin – Harford County Public Library
You can program in the native code or you can use a javascript framework.  The latter gives you the window dressings of a native app.  JS Framework web apps and mobile webkit devices include iPS, Android, Palm webOS, and Blackberry OS devices. jQuery Mobile is free and open source, and available at http://jquerymobile.com.  JQuery Mobile has broad compatibility, even with Nokia devices or the Opera Mobile browser.  JQTouch is another player to watch. JQTouch has one thing JQuery Mobile doesn’t–it more closely approximates the native app experience.  Each of these “pages” you can view within JQTouch is a <div> tag, letting you flip thru the carousels to the different pages.  When using JQTouch, you create a boilerplate for each page for a consistent layout and navigation, and then you insert your content into the body.  He also recommended the iPhone simulator tool as well.  HCPL Mobile, their app, with which you can look up items, log into your account, and more.  You can’t request an item or renew it, and they’re hoping that with their new ILS they can add this functionality.  HCPL Mobile is a “web app” (read: mobile webpage formatted for the user’s particular device to mimic an app experience).

Jason Michel & Kwabena Sekyere – Miami University Libraries
Their mobile site is located at http://lib.muohio.edu/m.  They wanted to be accessible to as many different mobile devices as possible, so they chose a mobile website instead of an app, using the Drupal mobile module functionality.  They have a catalog search, links to their database vendors who actually have mobile-friendly content, ways to contact the library, social media presences, etc.  They wanted catalog inter-functionality too, just like Harford, but their ILS vendor (Innovative Interfaces) doesn’t allow it.  (Sarah’s note: I always recommend doing a mobile site over a mobile app, but one huge benefit to our Boopsie-created mobile app @sanjoselibrary is that they offer full library user account functionality by screen scraping III’s Millennium patron interface).  Once you are able to set up your mobile profile for EBSCO you can send out a static link to get users access.  MU Libraries also offers IM, email, phone, and text-a-librarian which they offer through the Google Voice hack.  Sekyere demonstrated how the Google Voice hack actually works, which was helpful I think for people not familiar with the service.  More libraries are using this hack despite the fact that, strictly speaking, it might violate Google’s terms of service.  But hey…why not try?  MU Libraries directions interfaces with the iPhone’s mapping system.  They will continue to develop.

Yesterday I gave a webinar for Infopeople about mobile services for libraries.

You can view the archived webinar in full (audio, slides,  + chat) through the Infopeople site.

And the slides for that presentation are below.  Enjoy!

Hi y’all.  Yesterday I gave a webinar for the Florida Panhandle Library Access Network about online marketing for libraries.  The slides for that presentation are below.  Enjoy!

  • Free user-contributed repair manuals from iFixIt: http://www.ifixit.com. Site is still building content but hey…it has the Roomba!
  • Great article for library webmasters from the adaptive path blog: “Six habits for visual designers new to UX design” – http://bit.ly/b4az7P
  • ALA’s Statement about FCC modernizing ERATE to benefit libraries (from @ALA_TechSource). http://bit.ly/9NGxHL I’ll believe it when I see it.
  • 37 Productivity Tips for Working From Anywhere – http://mash.to/2KsPd
  • Blog Post: Practical Open Source Software for Libraries from @nengard: http://bit.ly/bcM8TM
  • Namechk – Instantly check your username’s availability on dozens of social sites. Grab your identity everywhere now. http://namechk.com/
  • “8 Villains of Social Media” from @sejournal. Good lessons on what to avoid when you’re posting yourself! http://bit.ly/auIPLV
  • Warning signs of information overload http://su.pr/2Rd2qA
  • Kurzweil’s company’s eBook product, Blio, looks interesting. http://www.blio.com/
  • Check out a FREE Project Gutenberg collection on North Carolina Digital Library website (from @DigiLibraryBlog) http://ow.ly/2LNT0
  • Veezle stock photo meta search engine: a great review from Tasha Saecker: http://bit.ly/assMF8
  • The Future Of The Library Is Not The Apple Store (from @ALA_TechSource): http://bit.ly/c3jLnp
  • The Internet Archive has scanned its one millionth book! Congrats! http://bit.ly/dt8OzV
  • Open Office splits from Oracle, becomes LibreOffice. Same great software! http://www.documentfoundation.org/
  • Review of The Social Network movie from @jeffjarvis: http://bit.ly/aZd2cI In short, if you know the real story it’s gonna annoy you.
  • From @wired: Scribd added Facebook “Instant Personalization” this week. It’s a privacy nightmare, says @pgcat http://bit.ly/aSalPI
  • Why Technology Matters for Children, The Digital Divide (from@librarianbyday): http://wp.me/pO3fW-jl
  • Allen Ginsberg figurine & poetry CD (via @BoingBoing): http://bit.ly/9wmfyX As a San Francisco groupie & literati, this is a must-buy!
  • Ooooh shiny! Star Wars app pack coming to Verizon 10/4 ($2.99 for photos, live wallpapers, trivia, widgets): http://bit.ly/cD8b7Y

eBooks: Libraries at the Tipping Point Online Conference
R. David Lankes Closing Keynote

Lankes wanted to start with a thought experiment.  What would happen if when we bought our next device, $10 was added to the cost and that went into a universal author’s fund and you could download any book any time?  Would this be a good thing for libraries?  Would it be a good thing for librarians?  Those are two different things.  For libraries, it would allow people to get access to information anywhere any time.  The value of libraries is the librarians, not the warehouse of stuff that we have. (Sarah’s comment: We know that, but the general user perception is that libraries are books, so if we no longer have books, won’t it will be hard to maintain community support and funding without a major overhaul of our public image?) We have seen a huge disaggregation of content.  Content is being ripped and remixed into different places — an explosion of data.  We see the disintegration of profiteering on content too.  One doesn’t, and hasn’t historically, made a lot of money off releasing a music album.  You make money off of touring and merchandising.  Same with books.  The real threat is that people have the perception of libraries as a mausoleum of stuff.  He also promoted the term “members” instead of users, customers, or patrons.  eBooks make Lankes cranky.  He only reads fiction in eBook format.  What makes him cranky is that the current implementation of hardware and software is so boring.  Book virtual interfaces made to look like wooden bookshelves are boring.  “Stop!” says Lankes.  He sees such potential in eBooks but we’re ignoring the possibilities of what could be.  eBooks aren’t solving the real problem:  access to information.  When we move books to a different format, there’s a problem.  Traditional terminology becomes a metaphor.  We append prefixes like “e” to traditional terms, but that doesn’t always translate conceptually.  If we look at reading the first thing we have to realize is that it should be a social and conversational experience.  Part of reading is processing language, turning words into concepts and images in your mind.  Some people believe reading to be quiet and contemplative, but Lankes challenges that assumption.  While reading is an isolating physically, mentally it is extraordinarily social — how we choose what to read, our pre-conceptions before reading it, how we feel about it and what we share about it afterward…  We can organize books and electronic content in all sorts of ways, allowing for hyperlinking and cross-referencing and community suggestions, not just “the librarian’s way.”  If we aggregate the unique individual connections, is there a commonality?  Yes.  We definitely don’t want the “every book’s an app” model that has started with the iPad.  We need to get back to the idea that book creation is part of a knowledge creation process.  The idea of authoring and reading is merging as tools make it obvious that there is an ongoing conversation.  Why annotate text only with other text?  He says that librarians are key to sense-making, production, distribution–all steps of knowledge creation.  Just as we are authors of our own mobile experiences through customization and apps, we should be authors of our own eBook experiences.  Multimedia, chat and other communication, and other functionality will benefit the creation and consumption experiences.  Libraries need to stop waiting for others to figure this eBook challenge out.  This is our problem and our opportunity.  We need to stop waiting for publishers to figure out the eBook model of the future – it’s like waiting for heroin addicts to develop the methadone of the future.  He asks the million dollar question: Why aren’t libraries building a unified eBook platform?  We need to stop buying from vendors and simply accepting what they give us.  We need to add our existing added value in our expertise, our passion for knowledge.  He encourages us to stand up for our users’ rights and innovate.  Librarians are not consumers or customers.  We are participators and so are those we seek to serve.  “Lead!” he says.

eBooks: Libraries at the Tipping Point Online Conference
Kevin Kelly (Wired CEO) Keynote

The web as we know it is only 7,000 days old.  Early prognosticators thought that the web would be TV, only better.  But what we have is a multi-device, multi-author, hugely connected infrastructure for communication.  There are 2 billion people linked up via the web.  With eBooks, we have the same problem — we’ve guessed that eBooks would be books only better.  But Kelly says that what’s coming is very different.  Our entire environment is saturated with screens–in airplanes, on the sides of buildings, mobile devices, computers, etc.  It’s important to recognize that the eBook is therefore part of that multi-screen environment.  We lean forward to use our small screens and lean back to use our big theater-style screens.  Where do eBooks fall into this?  2 billion YouTube clips are viewed daily.  This is a much larger audience than book readers.  As people we need to parse, index, browse, search, manipulate, annotate, re-sequence text…and have it be ubiquitous.  He sees the same thing happening with video and other images.  A move from orality to literacy happened with the printing press, and now we’re moving from literacy to what Kelly calls “vizuality.”  One media platform, blurred lines between media: TV, books, music, blogs, websites, magazines, radio, etc.  We don’t want to get stuck on screens being rigid — we’re already seeing flexible screens.  We can think about all of these devices that we have, which are windows into a single set of content in the cloud.  We and our devices are part of the cloud…it’s not a separate entity.  We create content for it and interact with it.  All types of things that people said they’d never share are being shared: shopping purchases, locations, health records, travel plans, personal genetics, eating patterns, and work histories.  As we move into the cloud, our content moves away from being a single file to being a stream which is tagged.  We are shifting from new page creation on the website (which has already peaked) to streams of content on Twitter, YouTube, and other sites.  If we think of books as a long-form stream, how does that change how we think about the future of the book?  People expect everything to be “always on,” everything to be available all the time.  iPads are one of the most popular media for kids because they don’t have to type.  Futuristic displays use gestures and interactions instead of keyboards and mice.  Kelly introduced the idea of a “watchful eBook” — one that tracks your eye movements and responds accordingly.  Lastly, he brought up the issue of the eBook “copy.”  The only value is that which cannot be copied.  If you want an old copy of National Geographic you can search for it and find a download for a slow download for free or a quick download for a fee.  If you want it personalized, that would carry a cost.  If you want to be sure that a piece of software, that requires a fee.  Or if something that was sent by a creator that you want to be a patron for, you pay them a fee.  Charge for different formats optimized for your accessibility needs.  But don’t charge for the thing itself.  Basically, he’s advocating for free eContent but charging for added-value services.

eBooks: Libraries at the Tipping Point Online Conference
eBooks and the Library User Experience
Josh Greenburg, Jean Costello, Aaron Schmidt, and Michael Bills – moderated by Rebecca Miller

Josh Greenburg started by talking about standard user stories for physical books — you find a book from the library catalog at home, see that it’s checked out, click on a button to place a hold and then you wait.  Or if you’re lucky and it is available, a mechanical and physical process starts and the book makes its way to whatever site you choose to pick it up at where it goes on a shelf and waits for you.  You might have to stand in line to check it out and then you have access to it for only a limited period of time.  eBooks have the same holds issues, but there is no physical transferral of the book from place to place, and no lines to wait in, no need for the user to go into a specific physical place, no real need to have due dates (if there’s no DRM and limits).  And in a lovely way the need for fines goes away too if the eBooks don’t have due dates any more.  But this is all a Utopian dream.  eBooks have a lot of speed bumps.  They’re usually, in the physical world, designed to slow people down so they don’t hurt themselves or those around them.  Speed bumps for eBooks slow people down, but not for their benefit or the library’s benefit–solely for the publisher’s benefit.  Things to think about: What are your goals for eContent at your library?  Do you have a fixed cost or do you subsidize rentals?  What type of collection do you want?  What does this look like for the user’s experience?  What speed bumps are you going to put into place in the experience?

Jean Costello spoke as a patron who took public libraries for granted for a long time, but her library was threatened with closure.  She learned how much she loves and treasures the organization, and now blogs as The Radical Patron.  She asks questions that are probably easier to ask from outside the organization rather than from within.  Book stores are cash-strapped and rethinking what they do and offer as their primary business model.  The real primary changes are digital content companies: Google, Twitter, Facebook, etc.  Publishers have, as a result, become outsiders to the emerging publishing paradigm.  Leaders in the publishing industry recognize the tipping point and rethink their alliances and values.  What she sees from libraries is that we look at eBooks as “just another technology to contend with, to be adopted but not fully embraced.”  (Sarah’s comment: Heck yes, that is totally true for most libraries.)  Will the public’s association of books with libraries translate to the eBook realm?  Are publishers looking to bypass libraries as an outlet  for digital media?  Are we aware of this threat?  Libraries are really focused on “collection.”  Content is so fluid that we need to stop thinking about content as a commodity, a thing to own.  She thinks we’ll see passionate readers and cultural institutions create enhanced versions of public domain works, self-published authors forging new ways and terms of distributing their work, and that news and magazines will be seamlessly and fluidly consumed on the fly.  Readers advisory will be wrapped around content automatically — look at the recommendation engines in Pandora or Netflix as a potential model.  The library user has little motivation to use the library.  Any sub-set of content within a world-vision of complete access to everything everywhere will be seen as insufficient.  There are many ways that libraries can add value.  They need to get past library culture and self-conception and the conflict of values they often have with the vendors.  We also need a strong representative to negotiate with the various stakeholders in the legislative and publishing industries.  But what do we have in libraries?  Libraries have widespread public trust and we need to start using that in new and creative ways.

Aaron Schmidt then took over the discussion and said that the eBook ship has sailed and we are not on it.  Years back we had arguments about whether VHS tapes should be in our collections and a whole paid industry sprung up while we were arguing.  DVD checkouts make up a large percentage of checkouts in libraries but many people still don’t know that we do that.  We have experimented with eBooks a long time ago before the general public was even interested in them — in the early days of the eBook Readers (oh yeah, the ones like the Rocket that failed).  We’re used to providing library customers with difficult to use resources (think about your database page).  Library patrons should never have to see the word Boolean logic.  DRM doesn’t work.  Determined users get around it, and all it takes is one ripped copy to open the floodgates for pirating.  And there will always, always be one ripped copy no matter what DRM you put in place.  All that does is stymie usage by law-abiding, EULA-abiding people.  The e-experience should not try to mimic the print experience – that is a failure waiting to happen.  Users are accessing eContent on their mobile devices.  Apple, Amazon, and Google have changed the game.   Better readers will make reading more enjoyable.  We don’t want libraries to become mausoleums for dead books.  Libraries should stop being like grocery stores (lots of stuff on the shelves) and more like kitchens (easy convenient access).  We need to concentrate on our most important asset — the people in our buildings, the library staff, and train them to provide a good user experience for our users with digital content.

Michael Bills talked about enhanced eBooks through Blio (free eBooks platform in development) — text-to-voice, video, annotations, links, etc.  eInk devices have proliferated, but the type of content that can be delivered to those devices has been constrained.  Blio provides full color enhanced content, interactivity, multiple viewing modes (2 page, 3D, thumbnail), is device-neutral, works on smaller and larger screens, and has a much deeper content catalog.  The Book Industry Group sees that people still read eBooks dominantly on computers, with the kindle in a close second.  Mobile devices like smart phones come next, ahead of other eReaders like the Sony Reader or the Nook.  What could be brought to eBooks that consumers would pay more for?  Blio actually has 80% of the extras that consumers said they’d pay for.